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Category Archives: Geothermal Power Energy
A new study shows that the United States has a geothermal power capacity that is ten times greater than the amount of energy produced by our current working coal-fired power plants. The study was funded by Google and conducted by Southern Methodist University’s Geothermal Laboratory where students and professors completed an in-depth map of the nation’s geothermal resources and found they aren’t just relegated to the areas in the west known for tectonic activity. The report revealed that even under the state of West Virginia, there is enough geothermal energy to immediately replace all of their coal-fired power plants.
The map above shows the findings of the study, with reds being the highest temperatures and greens the lowest. The researchers realized that though the east coast and central plains don’t have the high temperatures of the west, new technology can make it possible to use even the modest geothermal energy available to create electricity. A new technique called Low Temperature Hydrothermal, which uses naturally occurring subsurface fluids that exist at temperatures just below boiling to 300°F to create energy, is already being used in Alaska, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah and could be employed in many eastern states.
“Our study assumes that we tap only a small fraction of the available stored heat in the Earth’s crust, and our capabilities to capture that heat are expected to grow substantially as we improve upon the energy conversion and exploitation factors through technological advances and improved techniques” professor of Geophysics David Blackwell told TG Daily. Though the Low Temperature Hydrothermal energy production technique is promising and seems to be low impact, the study offers up some environmentally questionable techniques as well. The Enhanced Geothermal Systems technique employs essentially the same science as does hydrofracking, a very controversial method of removing natural gas from shale, and the Geopressure and Coproduced Fluids Geothermal technique pairs geothermal energy gathering with oil and gas production — definitely not a green option.
Here is a great book about geothermal HVAC.
A definitive and practical guide to residential and commercial geothermal HVAC Geothermal HVAC: Green Heating and Cooling covers the fast-growing field of geothermal air conditioning and heating technology and all of its peripherals, in both the commercial and residential sectors.
You‘ll get details on the vast array of choices currently available on the market, so you can take advantage of this emerging money- and energy-saving technology. The book is co-written by Jay Egg, who has 20 years of direct experience and accreditation in providing geothermal systems, and Brian Clark Howard, a Web editor, author, and environmental blogger.
You'll learn what type of systems will likely work in a particular area, as well as what pricing to expect for a particular efficiency and quality. Geothermal HVAC: Green Heating and Cooling: Explains the science and principles of heat transfer, convection, and infrared Identifies how to pair the best systems for each application and budget Lists market values for systems based on varying options and conditions Includes information on all the domestic and international tax rebates and stimulus packages available for implementing geothermal.
Contains coupons for discounts on geothermal products and services Practical coverage of geothermal HVAC: How geothermal works; Components of a system; What can be heated/cooled with geothermal/earth coupled systems; Types and sizes of heating and cooling systems; Types of geothermal heat pumps; Which kind of geothermal system is best for which application; Load calculations; What should it cost to have a geothermal system installed; System designs; what works, and what doesn't; What is my EER, really; Net positive cash flow… or how to calculate a payback; Federal and local tax incentives and rebates; Lifecycles and longevity.
To generate supremacy the geothermal supremacy place makes use of its geothermal activity. This kind of energy is environmentally welcoming and is utilized in various geothermal most important blemishes close to the world. To examine the power, strong holes into the the earth are drilled right up until you finally found the find for geothermal energy. Afterwards a tube is connected extremely deep down in the gap after the warmth supply has been realized that lets hot stream from full in the the earth's brown crust area to be able to elevate it up in the surface.
It is after that channelled in a generator that starts to change below the excellent pressure of the steam. The generator is hooked up to the electrical generator and hence the power generator should start to flip, generating electricity. Then a chilly water is becoming pumped straight down a new conduit which is warmed by the this planet and afterwards give back up as a first conduit to do a similar process.
The major concerns with geothermal energy is which you don't need to pump cold drinking water too much of the earth, as this might awesome the rocks too significantly, that may cause cooling straight down of geothermal warmth source. One more matter is which geothermal starts must be aware of escaping circumstances from with inside the the earth. The very best way of taking into consideration regarding geothermal power is to bear in mind that all the continents lie on molten rock beneath the the earth, it is the rock that produces excellent amounts of warmth which is extracted, simply consider of the nation mendacity underneath the bed of fire. The same as Fort Wayne Geothermal.
One of the a lot renewable power finds that is current on earth nowadays is the geothermal supremacy and the earth we dwell in consist of doing so type of heat for a lifetime. If in lawsuit this warmth disappears, the this planet should become too chilled to dwell on. If you need to use this class of power around the house it is easy to buy a modest scale geothermal computers, it papers in various approaches to geothermal supremacy stations. These supremacy channels get the warmth directly beneath the this planet, even though the house geothermal hot drinking water equipment will get the warmth from a couple of meters underneath the feet at the time of a lengthier interval of time.
The benefit of utilizing geothermal warmth to drive a power sta is that it does not produce any pollution. It may release most gases from very deep lower the earth as soon as in a whilst but it is not harmful and might be included easily.
Conventional electric plants are fairly simple devices when all is said and done. Most use coal, natural gas or oil to heat water, the water creates steam, and the steam turns a huge electric turbine. The nice thing about geothermal energy is that it is easily adapted to this type of electrical generation. The advantage is that there is no need to use fuel to heat the water to create steam, the water is already heated, sometimes to steam level, by geothermal processes. All you need do is add the turbine and you are off on running. For this reason, many areas of the country which have access to geothermal sources have been quick to tap those sources to create electricity.
There are three geothermal power plant technologies being used to convert hydrothermal fluids to electricity. The conversion technologies are dry steam, flash, and binary cycle. The type of conversion used depends on the state of the fluid (whether steam or water) and its temperature. Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built. They use the steam from the geothermal reservoir as it comes from wells, and route it directly through turbine/generator units to produce electricity. Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation today. They use water at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) that is pumped under high pressure to the generation equipment at the surface. Binary cycle geothermal power generation plants differ from Dry Steam and Flash Steam systems in that the water or steam from the geothermal reservoir never comes in contact with the turbine/generator units.
Dry Steam Power Plants
Steam plants usually rely on tapped geothermal pools where the water is already under pressure and generating steam. In these types of plants a production well has been drilled which taps the steam from an underground source. The steam goes directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine. (Also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels!) Once the steam has passed through the turbine it condenses and is pumped back into the earth via an injection well, thus creating a closed loop. One of the real advantages of this type of approach is that these types of systems emit very little excess steam and gasses and very little in the way of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere.
This is the oldest type of geothermal power plant. It was first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904, and is still very effective. Steam technology is used today at The Geysers in northern California, the world's largest single source of geothermal power. These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.
Flash Steam Power Plants
Many underground geothermal sources do not have sufficient heat or pressure to use steam directly. However, where the hydrothermal fluids are above 360°F (182°C) another process can be used called flash vaporization. In this type of process fluid is sprayed into a tank held at a much lower pressure than the fluid, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.
Binary-Cycle Power Plants
Most geothermal areas contain moderate-temperature water (below 400°F). With these types of sources the best approach to extracting the energy is to use a heat exchanger. In this type of approach geothermal fluid and a secondary (hence, "binary") fluid with a much lower boiling point than water pass through a heat exchanger. Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines. Because this is a closed-loop system, virtually nothing is emitted to the atmosphere. Moderate-temperature water is by far the more common geothermal resource, and most geothermal power plants in the future will be binary-cycle plants.
The Future of Geothermal Electricity
Steam and hot water reservoirs are just a small part of the geothermal resource. The Earth's magma and hot dry rock will provide cheap, clean, and almost unlimited energy as soon as we develop the technology to use them. In the meantime, because they're so abundant, moderate-temperature sites running binary-cycle power plants will be the most common electricity producers. Before geothermal electricity can be considered a key element of the U.S. energy infrastructure, it must become cost-competitive with traditional forms of energy. Geothermal companies are currently working to achieve of 3-5 cents per kilowatt-hour which would be very competitive with natural gas and coal plants. This will be even be more the case if these conventional coal and gas plants are taxed for the economic impact of their carbon emissions. Bills to do this are currently being considered by Congress and are likely in the future.